Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Obsessive-compulsive disorder is an anxiety disorder that affects children and adolescents as well as adults in which people have unwanted and repeated thoughts, feelings, ideas, sensations (obsessions), or behaviours that make them feel driven to do something (compulsion).

These intrusive thoughts often produce uneasiness, apprehension, fear or worry; by repetitive behaviours aimed at reducing the associated anxiety; or by a combination of such obsessions and compulsions.

Often the person carries out the behaviours to get rid of the obsessive thoughts, but this only provides temporary relief. Not performing the obsessive rituals can cause great anxiety.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is more common than was once thought. It affects both the young and the old – children, adolescents and adults.

There are several theories about the cause(s) of OCD, but none have been confirmed. Some reports have linked OCD to head injury and infections. Several studies have shown that there are brain abnormalities in patients with OCD. OCD has also been linked to above average intelligence because its sufferers often give high attention to detail, avoid risk, plan carefully, take time in making decisions and have a exaggerated sense of responsibility.

OCD has also been linked to Tourette syndrome due to the fact that about 20% of OCD patients have tics, however, this link is yet to be confirmed.

Obsessions and compulsions that are not due to medical illness or drug use, that cause major distress or interfere with everyday life have been pencilled down as the symptoms of OCD.

Some of these obsessions/compulsions include checking and rechecking actions (such as turning out the lights and locking the door), excessive counting, excessive fear of germs,the compulsion to repeatedly wash the hands to ward off infection.

Other symptoms of OCD include extreme hoarding; preoccupation with sexual, violent or religious thoughts; relationship-related obsessions; aversion to particular numbers; and nervous rituals, such as opening and closing a door a certain number of times before entering or leaving a room.

These symptoms can be alienating and time-consuming, and often cause severe emotional and financial distress.

The person usually recognizes that the behaviour is excessive or unreasonable and may become further distressed by this realization.

Your own description of the behaviour can help diagnose the disorder. A physical exam can rule out physical causes, and a psychiatric evaluation can rule out other mental disorders.

Questionnaires, such as the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS), can help diagnose OCD and track the progress of treatment.

OCD is treated using medications and therapy. The first medication usually considered is a type of anti-depressant called a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). These drugs include: Citalopram (Celexa), Fluoxetine (Prozac), Fluvoxamine (Luvox), Paroxetine (Paxil), Sertraline (Zoloft)

If an SSRI does not work, the doctor may prescribe an older type of antidepressant called a tricyclic antidepressant. Clomipramine is a TCA, and is the oldest medication for OCD. It usually works better than SSRI antidepressants in treating the condition, but it can have unpleasant side effects, such as difficulty starting urination, drop in blood pressure when rising from a seated position, dry mouth, sleepiness.

In some cases, an SSRI and clomipramine may be combined. Other medications, such as low-dose atypical antipsychotics (including risperidone, quetiapine, olanzapine, or ziprasidone) have been shown to be helpful. Benzodiazepines may offer some relief from anxiety, but they are generally used only with the more reliable treatments.

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to be the most effective type of psychotherapy for this disorder. The patient is exposed many times to a situation that triggers the obsessive thoughts, and learns gradually to tolerate the anxiety and resist the urge to perform the compulsion. Medication and CBT together are considered to be better than either treatment alone at reducing symptoms.

Psychotherapy can also be used to provide effective ways of reducing stress, reduce anxiety, resolve inner conflicts.

OCD is a long-term (chronic) illness with periods of severe symptoms followed by times of improvement. However, a completely symptom-free period is unusual. Most people improve with treatment.

Long-term complications of OCD have to do with the type of obsessions or compulsions. For example, constant handwashing can cause skin breakdown. However, OCD does not usually progress into another disease.

There is no known prevention for this disorder.

AMAZING FACTS ABOUT THE NUMBER 9

1. If you multiply nine by any whole number (except zero), and repeatedly add the digits of the answer until it’s just one digit, you will end up with nine:
2 × 9 = 18 (1 + 8 = 9)
3 × 9 = 27 (2 + 7 = 9)
9 × 9 = 81 (8 + 1 = 9)
121 × 9 = 1089 (1 + 0 + 8 + 9 = 18; 1 + 8 = 9)
234 × 9 = 2106 (2 + 1 + 0 + 6 = 9)
578329 × 9 = 5204961 (5 + 2 + 0+ 4 + 9 + 6 + 1 = 27 (2 + 7 = 9))
482729235601 × 9 = 4344563120409 (4 + 3 + 4 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 3 + 1 + 2 + 0 + 4 + 0 + 9 =45 (4 + 5 = 9))
(Exception) 0 x 9 = 0 (0 is not equal to 9)

2. Only about one ninth of the mass of an iceberg is visible above the water. Nearly all its bulkremains hidden beneath the surface.

3. On cloud nine means happy, euphoric or `high’. The phrase came into use in the 1950s from a term used by the US Weather Bureau. For the meteorologists Cloud Nine is cumulo-nimbus cloud at a height of 10 km, which is high even by the standard of clouds.

4. The 9 of diamonds – the playingcard – is sometimes called the Curse of Scotland

5. The expression to the nines means to the highest degree. Someone dressed “to the nines” isdressed up as much as they can be.

6. The sum of the digits of the number added to 9 is always equal to the sum of the digits of the result. Take any four digit number and try the trick. Ex: 9 + 17 = 26. 1 + 7 = 8 & 2 + 6 = 8

7. In French the word neuf means both nine and new. In German, the words for nine and new are neun and neu, and in Spanish, nueve and nuevo. As you count and reach nine, you know you are about to make a new start.

8. Nine judges sit on the United States Supreme Court.

9. Nine Eleven is the day of the attacks on the World Trade Center,New York, USA.

10. Nine months is the average number of months per school year that most primary and secondary students are required to attend.

11. A human pregnancy ordinarily lasts for nine months.

12. There are nine members of the Fellowship of the Ring in The Lord of the Rings saga, to balanceand combat the nine Nazgûl, or Ringwraiths.

13. Important Buddhist rituals usually involve nine monks.

14. A batting lineup in baseball consists of nine players. In addition, 9 represents the number of innings in a game.

15. A standard work day of 9 to 5 begins at 9 a.m.

16. It is easy to work out whether a number is exactly divisible by 9. This is the same as asking whether a number is in the “9 times table”. All you have to do is add up its digits. If the answer is more than one digit long, you addup the digits again, and go on doing this, until you are left with asingle digit. If this single digit is 9 then the original number was divisible by 9.
For example, is 781236 divisible by 9? Adding up its digits 7 + 8 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 6 = 27
– and adding again 2 + 7 = 9. And because the answer is 9, the original number must be divisible by 9.

17. The formula for determining the sum of interior angles of a polygon is n-2(180). n= number of sides. The sum of all angles of any polygon will always equal 9. A9-sided polygon is 9-2(180) or 7(180) or 1260. 1+2+6+0 = 9. Try it with any sided polygon.

18. Any random number (e.g 35967930) when arranged with its integers in a descending order(i.e. 99765330) and subtracted from it the reverse number with rearranged integers in an ascending order ( i.e 03356799) the resulting subtraction (i.e. 96408531) individual integers when added (i.e 36) leads to a multiple of number 9.

Examples:
2- Digit Numbers: 10-01 = 9 (9X1); 21-12 = 9; 32-23 = 9; 43-34 = 9; 54-45 = 9; 65-56 = 9; 76-67 = 9; 87-78 = 9; 98-89 = 9;

3-Digit Numbers: 210-012 = 198 (1+9+8 = 18 = 9X2; 321-123 = 198; 432-234 = 198; 543-345 = 198; 654-456 = 198; 765-567 = 198; 876-678 = 198; 987-789 = 198;

4-Digit Numbers: 3210-0123 = 3087 (3+0+8+7 = 18 = 9X2); 4321-1234 = 3087; 5432-2345 = 3087; 6543-3456 = 3087; 7654-4567 = 3087; 8765-5678 = 3087; 9876-6789 = 3087;

5-digit Numbers: 43210-01234 = 41976 (4+1+9+7+6 = 27 = 9X3); 54321-12345 = 41976; 65432-23456 = 41976; 76543-34567 = 41976; 87654-45678 = 41976; 98765-56789 = 41976;

6- digit numbers: 543210 – 012345 = 530865 (5+3+0+8+6+5= 27 = 9X3; 654321 – 123456 = 530865 = 27; 765432 – 234567 =530865 = 27; 876543 – 345678 =530865 = 27; 987654 – 456789 =530865 = 27;

7- digit numbers: 6543210 – 0123456 = 6419754 (6+4+1+9+7+5+4 = 36 = 9X4); 7654321 – 1234567 = 6419754; 8765432 – 2345678 = 6419754; 9876543 – 3456789 =6419754;

8-digit numbers: 76543210 – 01234567 = 75308643 (7+5+3+0+8+6+4+3 = 36 = 9X4; 87654321 – 12345678 = 75308643 98765432 – 23456789= 75308643

9-digit numbers: 876543210 -012345678 = 864197532 (8+6+4+1+9+7+5+3+2 = 45=9X5) 987654321 -123456789 = 864197532;

10-digit numbers: 9876543210 -0123456789 = 9753086421 (9+7+5+3+0+8+6+4+2+1) = 45 = 9X5); 9988664432 -2344668899= 7643995533 (7+6+4+3+9+9+5+5+3+3) = 54=9X6).

19. On a numeric keypad or calculator, the numbers from left to right and top to bottom are…
789 – row 1
456 – row 2
123 – row 3

If you add up the totals of each row you get… row1 is 7 + 8 + 9 = 24 , row2 is 4 + 5 + 6 = 15 , row3 is 1 + 2 + 3 = 6 The difference between each sum is 9. (24 – 15 =9 or 15 – 6 = 9)

20. Nine is strongly associated with the Chinese dragon, a symbol of magic and power. There are nine forms of the dragon, it is described in terms ofnine attributes, and it has nine children.

21. In Thai, the word for nine, ‘gao’, is the same as the verb for ‘to develop or progress’.

22. In astrology, the ninth sign of the Zodiac is Sagittarius, identifiedby the Greeks as a centaur. Centaurs are magical creatures known for their skills as archers, philosophers, and predictors of the future.

23. In classical music the curse of the ninth refers to the superstition that a composer whowrites a ninth symphony will die soon. Beethoven, who left his Tenth Symphony unfinished, is regarded by the superstition as the first victim of the curse.

24. The Beatles released a song called “Revolution 9” which appears on The White Album (more properly known as The Beatles); its principle vocal featureis a voice repeating, “Number nine…number nine…number nine…” John Lennon, the primary composer of “Revolution 9″, also released a solo recording entitled”#9 Dream”. The Beatles also released a song called “One After 909” in 1970, although it was recorded in 1969, and Lennon and McCartney had worked on it since the very early days. Lennon is known to have felt a connection with the number 9. Both he and his son, Sean were born on October 9th. Also, John died on the 9th (UK Time). Ironically, of all the Beatles’ singlesthat made the U.S. Top 10 in Billboard, all peak positions were covered except #9.

25. The whole nine yards has a few possible origins, but a common thought of it’s origin is that tailors use nine yards of material to make top quality suits.

26. There are 360 degrees in a circle. 3 + 6 + 0 = 9.

27. The earth rotates 15 degrees per hour through 24 different time zones, 1 per hour. 24 – 15 = 9. 24 x 15 = 360 or a full rotation.